The Netherlands has produced leading thinkers such as Multatuli, Herman Gorter and Anton Pannekoek. Their work is still being reprinted today.
In 1909, the emergence of the Netherlands’ Social Democratic Party, a homegrown communist party, was a first in Europe.
The railway strike of 1903 caught everyone off guard. The reactions almost led people to suspect that the revolution was not far behind. Earlier, in 1886, a demonstration of unemployed workers and a local Amsterdam festival that got out of control stirred up fear of revolution.
A lawsuit against three Frisian socialists in 1896 gave rise to general agitation. The Hogerhuis brothers were convicted of burglary and manslaughter without proper evidence. Class justice, declared their lawyer Pieter Jelles Troelstra. The case has been compared with the Dreyfus Affair.