> Batavia becomes Jakarta

Charles Breijer - The porch above the main entrance of a colonial hotel in Yogyakarta, renamed to Hotel Merdeka, Indonesia (1948)Shortly after the Japanese capitulation, on 17 August 1945, the independent Republic of Indonesia was proclaimed. In the chaotic period that followed, it became clear that the Republic could count on extensive support. 

Initially, the Dutch were striving to restore the colonial order, but international pressure forced the Netherlands to negotiate about gradual decolonisation.

After laborious negotiations and for economical reasons, the Netherlands decided to carry out Police Actions, which were a military success, but failed as a means of international policy.

Under increasing pressure the Netherlands agreed in 1949 to Indonesia's independence.

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